Smart ceramics and composites

Smart ceramics are materials made of ultrafine particles. They are hard, brittle, heat-resistant, and corrosion-resistant materials formed by shaping and then firing at high temperatures an inorganic, nonmetallic material, nitride, or carbide material such as clay. Ceramography is the art and science of preparing, inspecting, and assessing ceramic microstructures. Any ceramic substance's physical properties are determined by its crystalline structure and chemical composition. Mechanical properties are critical in structural and building materials, as well as in textile fabrics. 

Smart Composites are made up of two materials that have different physical and chemical properties. Buildings, bridges, and boat hulls are common applications for composite materials, as are swimming pool panels, racing car bodies, shower stalls, bathtubs, storage tanks, and imitation granite and cultured marble sinks and countertops.