Materials Science and Engineering is the study of the properties and applications of materials of construction or manufacture (such as ceramics, metals, polymers and composites). It combines engineering, physics and chemistry principles to solve real-world problems associated with nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, energy, manufacturing and other major engineering disciplines.

Applications of Materials Science
Emerging Technologies in Materials Science
Graphene Technology
Materials Synthesis

Smart materials, also known as intelligent or responsive materials, are designed materials that can be significantly changed in a controlled manner by external stimuli such as stress, moisture, electric or magnetic fields, light, temperature, pH, or chemical compounds. By activating its functions, smart materials technology allows us to adapt to environmental changes. Traditional coating technologies transport the sensing and responding properties of smart materials for active coating to textiles. Depending on the trigger, these bioinspired materials can change their dimensions, solubility, colour, and shape, among other things. 

Ceramics, composites, and polymer materials are just a few of the many applications of material science. Bonding in ceramics and glasses employs both covalent and ionic-covalent types, with SiO2 serving as the fundamental building block. Ceramics can be as soft as clay or as tough as stone and concrete. They are usually crystalline in nature. The majority of glasses contain a metal oxide that has been amalgamated with silica. Structures such as steel-reinforced concrete and gorilla glass are examples of applications. 


Polymers are also an important component of materials science. Polymers are the raw materials used to create plastics. Specialty plastics are materials that have unique properties such as ultra-high strength, electrical conductivity, electro-fluorescence, and high thermal stability. Plastics are classified based on their properties and applications rather than their composition. 

Smart ceramics are materials made of ultrafine particles. They are hard, brittle, heat-resistant, and corrosion-resistant materials formed by shaping and then firing at high temperatures an inorganic, nonmetallic material, nitride, or carbide material such as clay. Ceramography is the art and science of preparing, inspecting, and assessing ceramic microstructures. Any ceramic substance's physical properties are determined by its crystalline structure and chemical composition. Mechanical properties are critical in structural and building materials, as well as in textile fabrics. 

Smart Composites are made up of two materials that have different physical and chemical properties. Buildings, bridges, and boat hulls are common applications for composite materials, as are swimming pool panels, racing car bodies, shower stalls, bathtubs, storage tanks, and imitation granite and cultured marble sinks and countertops. 

With the growing demand for sensors, there is a need for the development of Smart Materials that are efficient and safe for a variety of sensing applications. These Smart Materials can be synthesised using a variety of novel fabrication and characterization techniques. Sensor devices that collect data from their surroundings and use embedded microprocessors and wireless communication to monitor, analyse, and maintain various systems. They can collect environmental data more accurately and with less erroneous noise. Though they are used for a wide range of purposes, they are most commonly found in monitoring mechanisms such as smart grids, science applications, and security systems. Magnetism could be extracted from these novel Smart Materials, particularly graphene. 

Potential topics include, but are not limited to 

  • Biomedical 
  • Chipless RFID sensors 
  • Food safety 

Biomarkers have become so common in basic and clinical research, as well as clinical practise, that they are now used as primary endpoints in clinical trials. Biomarkers that have been well characterised and repeatedly demonstrated to correctly predict relevant clinical outcomes across a wide range of treatments and populations; this use is completely justified and appropriate. It is simple to imagine measurable biological characteristics that do not correspond to patients' clinical states, or whose variations are undetectable and have no effect on health. Surrogate endpoints are a small subset of well-characterized biomarkers with clinical utility. A biomarker predicts a clinical outcome, either benefit or harm, in a consistent and accurate manner. 

Graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials promise unprecedented advancements in device performance at the atomic level, and a synergistic combination of 2D materials and silicon chips promises a heterogeneous platform with massively enhanced potential based on silicon technology. Integration is accomplished through three-dimensional monolithic construction of multifunctional high-rise 2D silicon chips, allowing for improved performance by utilising the vertical direction and functional diversification of the silicon platform for applications in optoelectronics and sensing. 

Electronic and optical Smart Materials are linked to and reliant on light and electricity. The study, design, and manufacture of smart materials capable of converting electrical signals to light signals and light signals to electrical signals are referred to as optical and electronic materials. Optoelectronic devices are the devices that convert them. The quantum mechanical effect of light is becoming more important in optoelectronics. Laser systems, remote sensing systems, fibre communications, and electric eyes medical diagnostic systems are examples of optoelectronic technologies. 

When a material detects a stimulus in its environment, it can respond in a useful, reliable, reproducible, and reversible manner. These properties are useful in a variety of fields, including dentistry. Materials used in dentistry were designed to be passive and inert, interacting with body tissues and fluids as little as possible. The ability of materials used in the oral cavity to survive without interacting with the oral environment was frequently used to evaluate them. The realisation of the benefit of fluoride release from materials was the first inkling that a "active" rather than "passive" material might be appealing in dentistry. 

New energy-saving technology based on Smart Materials is rapidly evolving and becoming more cost-effective, with much shorter payback periods. Investing in the renovation of existing building stock with Energy-Saving Technologies, such as innovative Smart Materials, provides a chance to improve housing energy efficiency. Smart Materials are being developed on a small scale due to a lack of understanding about their changeable properties and dynamism in how they respond to energy fields. The technological chain involved in the design, production, and implementation of Smart Materials in building refurbishment could allow the energy performance of buildings to influence their value. Smart Materials also reduce the load intensity on distribution electricity and heating networks, resulting in better indoor conditions by reducing the building's exposure to temperature fluctuations of outdoor conditons. 

Smart Materials have the potential to create smart structures and materials. The variety of possible products, including new designs, quality control, multifunctional products, security elements, and externally applied field values such as stress, temperature, and electric or magnetic fields. Composite materials embedded with fibre optics, actuators, sensors, Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMSs), vibration control, sound control, shape control, product health or lifetime monitoring, cure monitoring, intelligent processing, active and passive controls, self-repair (healing), artificial organs, novel indicating devices, designed magnets, damping aero elastic stability, and stress distributions are all part of it. 

A smart structure is a versatile system and combination of sensing, controlling, and actuation steps that functions similarly to an elemental analogue of the human body. Each smart material serves as a unit cell for smart structures, with each cell performing sensing and actuation functions. It is capable of checking for multiple optimal conditions and displaying its function. Smart structures are resistant to natural disasters and meet all technological demands. 

Potential topics include, but are not limited to 

  • Self-Healing of Structures 
  • Dissipation of Energy in Structures 
  • Earthquake Resistant Structures 
  • Smart Resilient & Transition Cities 
  • Smart Building Systems 
  • Smart Home Networks 
  • BulletProof Structure 
  • Material Structure Prediction 
  • Composite Materials and Adaptive Structures 
  • Structural Engineering 
  • Green Buildings 
  • Smart Design and Construction of Special Structures 
  • Deformation of Layered Structures 

Architectural technology is one of the major sectors of civil engineering that includes advanced innovations in structural engineering and is very concerned with structures or buildings. Development projects in the construction industry typically necessitate knowledge and understanding of civil engineering and architecture. These are important disciplines that deal with the process of constructing structures such as buildings, airports, churches, and houses, among others. Structures are planned and designed using both Civil Engineering and Architecture. However, architecture is more concerned with the artistry, look, feel, and functionality of the design, whereas civil engineering is more concerned with the structural elements of the design, ensuring that the structure can withstand normal and extreme conditions. Sea defence systems against rising sea levels, under water - on water constructions, floating and green city architecture are some of the major applications of smart structures. 

Potential topics include, but are not limited to 

  • Architectural Technology of Structural Engineering 
  • Structural Analysis & Design 
  • Structural Engineering and Concrete Technology 
  • Transportation & Construction Engineering Concepts 
  • Under Water-On Water Constructions                               
  • Floating and Green Cities Architecture 
  • Analysis and design of buried structures under earthquake loading 
  • Application and research of high-strength constructional steel 
  • Application and research of modular buildings 
  • Application of shape memory alloys in earthquake-resistant design 
  • Architectural acoustics 
  • Characteristics of supertall building structures 
  • Smart Concrete 
  • Fundamental design of reinforced concrete water structures 
  • Life-cycle analysis of civil structures 
  • Precast prestressed concrete pavement (PPCP) 
  • Smart net-zero energy buildings 
  • Structural materials 
  • Structural mechanics 
  • Smart Bricks and Fluids 

Aerospace, defense, structure and buildings, marine, automotive, computers, and other electronic devices, civil engineering, medical equipment applications, and rotating machinery applications are just a few of the many applications for smart materials. Drug-delivery systems, medical clothing, and fabric with moisturizers and anti-aging properties all benefit from innovations in the health and beauty sector. E-textiles are used in intelligent clothing, wearable technology, and wearable computing projects. Intelligent Structures of Architecture and Civil Engineering have been used to reveal and uncover the ancient and magnificent architecture created by humans while redesigning the earth's geography. Recent research in archaeological technology, structural engineering, and civil engineering is being conducted using various geotechnical, structural, environmental, transportation, and construction engineering principles. 

Potential topics include, but are not limited to 

  • Intelligent Traffic Surveillance System 
  • Smart Antenna Systems 
  • wireless camera network (WCN) 
  • wireless networks (WNs) 
  • Smart Home Networks 
  • Cyber security & Smart Grids 
  • Embedded system 
  • Big Data & Smart Service Systems 
  • smart camera 
  • Image Processing 
  • Object recognition. 
  • Complex adaptive systems 
  • Expert control system 
  • Medical control systems 
  • Programmable controllers 
  • Railroad control systems 
  • Remote-control system 
  • Sampled-data control system 
  • Traffic-control systems 

A sensor is a device that detects and responds to physical environment input. Light, stress, heat, motion, moisture, and pressure are among the various stimuli. The output is a signal that has been transformed into human-readable and understandable outputs. An actuator is a machine component that is in charge of moving and controlling a mechanism or system. A transducer is a device that converts physical parameter variations into electrical signals or vice versa. These are critical components of intelligent control systems and structures. 


  • Sensors : Thermal,Mechanical,Electrical,Chemical,Optical and acoustic Sensors 

  • Transducers: Electricochemical,Electroacoustic,Electromagnetic,Electrostatic,ElectroMechanical,Photoelectric,Thermoelectric 

  • Actuators :Thermal,Electrical,Mechanical Actuators 

The fundamental natural sciences are physics and chemistry. Physics provides a broad understanding of matter and dynamic systems. It describes the motion and behaviour of any object in space and time. Chemistry primarily describes compounds, their composition, structure, and physicochemical properties. The fundamental knowledge of physics and chemistry is the manifestation of every other branch. 

Potential topics include, but are not limited to 

  • Materials Physics 
  • Materials Chemistry 
  • Physical chemistry 
  • Catalyst Materials 
  • Electrocatalysts 
  • Thermodynamics 
  • Quantum physics 
  • Nuclear physics

Physics and chemistry are the fundamental natural sciences. Physics provides a general understanding of matter and dynamic systems. It describes the motion and behaviour of any object through space and time. Chemistry primarily discusses compounds, their composition, structure, and physicochemical properties. The fundamental knowledge of physics and chemistry is the manifestation of all other branches. 

  • Potential topics include, but are not limited to 
  • Organic and inorganic Chemistry 
  • Analytical,Organometallic, Cosmetic Chemistry 
  • Polymer chemistry 
  • Nanochemistry 
  • Lubricants, coolants,semiconductors,metals,polymers,ceramics,glasses,liquid crystals 

A smart grid is a system that includes a wide range of operational and energy measures, such as renewable energy resources, smart metres, smart appliances, and energy efficiency resources. Lithium batteries, for example, are used in a wide range of mobile devices, including communication equipment, computers, entertainment devices, power tools, toys, games, lighting, and medical devices. Solar energy is derived from natural sources, which are not harmful to behavioural or environmental factors. The sun's energy is captured and converted into solar energy (thermal or electrical) for later use. Solar energy is also used to produce fuel, which is then heated to a high temperature. Energy storage captures energy that is produced at one time and stores it for future use. 

Biomaterials are materials that are primarily used in medicine to repair or replace damaged tissue. They have a significant impact on tissue cell growth and proliferation. The development of these biocompatible biomaterials as implants and augments has reshaped medical treatment, allowing advancement in the fields of tissue engineering and medical bionic devices. Biosensors are analytical devices capable of converting biological responses into electrical signals. Biomaterials have many medical applications, such as cancer treatments, artificial ligaments and collagen tissue, joint replacements, bone plates, and contact lens applications, as well as some non-medical applications, such as blood protein assays, cell culture growth, and so on. 

Potential topics include, but are not limited to 

  •        Photopolymerizable hydrogels in regenerative medicine and drug delivery 
  •        polymeric implants 
  •        Bionanomaterials 
  •        Bioactive glasses 
  •        Biomaterials in spine surgery 
  •        Biomedical materials for cardiovascular stents 
  •        PEGylated ceramic nanophosphors 
  •        Phosphate-based glass fibers for biomedical applications 
  •        Biomaterials for Brain Therapy and Repair 
  •        Medical implants 
  •        Molecular probes and nanoparticles 
  •        Biosensors 
  •        Drug-delivery systems 

Emerging Materials covers a wide range of natural and man-made materials and their structure, synthesis, properties, characterization, performance, and processing. 

Potential topics include, but are not limited to 

  • Advances in Materials Processing Technologies 
  • Mechatronics and Intelligent Materials 
  • Key Engineering Materials 
  • Functional and Advanced Materials 
  • Progress in New Materials and Mechanics Research 
  • Ultra-Precision Machining Technologies 
  • Frontiers of Manufacturing Science and Technology 

Smart materials, also known as intelligent materials, have the ability to respond to external stimuli or changes in any physical parameter, displaying a response in accordance with the change and returning to its original state once the stimuli are removed. Smart Materials are classified based on the type of stimuli and how they respond to them. Because of the change in its environment, the material's properties will change. Smart Materials are hybrid materials made up of at least two materials in order to produce the desired resulting materials with the required properties. 

Potential topics include, but are not limited to 

  •    Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Materials 
  •    Shape memory alloys and polymers 
  •    Smart Grids,Smart Home networks 
  •    Smart Fabrics & Wearable Technology 
  •    Smart Coatings for Smart Textiles 
  •    Electrostrictive and Magnetostrictive Materials 
  •    Electro- and Magnetorheological Materials 
  •    Photoresponsive and Sensitive Materials 
  •    Chemical and Biochemical Sensitive Materials 
  •    Electroactive polymers 

Functional accouterments can be any type of specially designed material that serves a specific purpose. Their unique physicochemical parcels are what distinguishes functional accouterments. In order to maximize their commerce with the terrain, a special type of functional accouterment is synthesized with a high face-to-volume ratio. Functional shells and functional patches are common examples. The investigation of their conflation and characterization is critical for future technologies. 

  • Semiconductors 
  • molecular chargers 
  • Functional Accoutrements grounded bias 
  • Glamorous accouterments 
  • Compound Accoutrements 
  • Arising Accoutrements 

Additive Manufacturing is a term used to describe technologies that create 3D objects by layering subcaste upon subcaste of raw material, regardless of whether the raw material is plastic, essence, concrete, or mortal towel.